Making bows of green wood Vol. 2- A very helpful jig

Another advantage of using green wood for to make selfbows is the possibility to shape it while drying. Vol. 1 was focused on working  a green bowstave a bit longer, wider and thicker than the final dimensions will be. So drying will help us again in making working easier.

But for to draw the drying wood into a shape a jig is needed, a kind of “shaper”. Don´t expect to much what is possible to get. I recommend slight deflex, reflex or recurve. For more curvature I reommend steam- bending( there will be an article about it soon). Anyway I´m not a friend of highly reflexed or recurved bows, maybe they are somehow looking wild or fast, but their performance is often quite disappointing compared with the challenge of making and shooting them.

The jig: as a mindful reader of the bowXplosion you still know it. It´s one of these multi- jigs I prefer so much, it could be used for heat- treating too. And its easy to do.

the jig- sideview, it´s 60" in length

It is made of a squared timber of douglas fir(2″ x 4″ in cross- section). Be generous and choose a real stable timber, maybe some found beech would be a better choice.  The curvature is suited for to get a slightly deflexed bow with long slightly reflexed tips. Usually bowyers have more jigs with different curves: more or no deflex, reflex all over the complete length, more reflex or even some more recurved tips. Anyway it is a good idea to have more than one of such jigs avaible, when a bow made of green wood is drying you can´t use the jig for heat- treating.

.......take care of the right angle.......

The most important thing is to get a right angle all over the length, otherwise you´ll end up with a twisted bow.

Draw parallel lines on the jig- at intervals of about 1/2"

The parallel lines are indicating a center- line for to fix the bow straight.

......the jig could also be used as a ruler for to check the straightness of a bow

Sorry this pic is not to good, but you see the string of this is running just at the edge of the handle:  the bow should be fixed at the jig  so, that the string is running a bit more towards the center of the handle. Heat- treating is so genius, it is possible to correct twists, to add deflex or reflex and at the same time drawweight is increasing!

Heat- treating or drying- jig without curves

Anyway it is possible to use a squared timber without sawing any curves, just straight and stable enough, the shaping could be done by using blocks of wood or cork  as displayed above.

Next volume is dealing with tillering the dried bow.



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Making bows of Green wood Vol.1- Rowan flightbow

O.k., first article 2011. It´s a “to be continued” of “Bow- staves- Vol.2- making a bow from green wood”

The mentioned rowan- bow is ready, but to far away from 50lbs at 23″: 27lbs at 23″, what´s wrong about it? I did the bow to thin! That´s all, cause of my lack of experience in making bows of rowan- saplings. To fail is the teacher you´ll never forget.

Anyway I heat- treated much more reflex into the bow, I didn´t succeed in increasing the drawweight: if there is to less material, it is a no- go to enforce a selfbow. It´s quite better to cut away to less wood 20 times than to cut to much wood away one time! It´s not possible to add wood to a selfbow. Usually I keep such a failed bow, sooner or later a customer will ask for it.

The bow was tested, 27lbs at 23″, I did no chronos, it shoots a 350grs.- arrow at about 130yards.

th rowan bow is on the left
The rowan bow at 18"- checking the tiller

Beside the failed drawweight the bow is matching my expectations. I want the slightly reflexed limbs to become straight when drawn, most working is just beside the handle, so there is a quite well energy- storage.

This bow is a kind of study for to more get confident with the deflex/reflex- design I´m actually studying.

The second trial with a rowan- sapling:

The rowan stave

What looks straight is a bit snaky and twisty too, but with someheat-treating I could get by with it.

This stave is still green too

Cause the stave is green, it´s really easy to straighten it finally, but there´ll remain some tracks of its naturally growing- pattern. That´s what makes selfbows such distinctively genuine.

Checking the center- line of the stave

The handle is almost completely beside the center- line. Laying out the handle and the skinny tips. I wanted to make a longer handle as usual for to shorten the working area of the limbs. Combined with the skinny tips, this is a way for to mix the qualities of a longer bow with the capablities of a shorter bow: good leverage and a quick movement of the limbs.

Working the stave roughly with the ax

My Swedish ax is one of the best tools I´ve ever bought, this blacksmith is making single pieces, just tell him what you want. The most important thing is a premium blade, highly durable and not to heavy. If an ax is to heavy, it is not possible to make exactly cuts and your hands will be tired soon.

Using my shaving horse beside the warm wood-stove while winter has heavily begun

 

The design is cut
The skinny tips- finally the tips will be thicker than the bending/working parts of the limbs
The extra long handle
So far: the bow is ready for to clamped on the jig
So far: the bow is ready for to be clamped on the jig

Next volume will be focused on making a jig for drying a greenwood- bow, it could also be used for heat- treating.



Selfmade clamps for laminated bow- constructions

About 10 years ago I did my first hornbows with usual bow- woods as a core: ash, elm, black locust, wild cherry………The glueing turned out to be a kind of not to much reliable The glueing procedure itself was  becoming more and more a thing of chaos and even some horror:  glue drying to fast, fingers full of glue, glue everywhere, all things glued up but not the horn to the core- wood…………….these flops made me to think the whole thing over, to reset and to update my mind about traditional glueing of laminated bow- construction. Remember 10 years ago the infos dealing with hornbows and other laminated bows were not as wide- spreaded as today. It took me another 4 years to become able to manage the procedure in a more secure way. When glueing bow- lams with natural glues it is a must to organize the whole procedure very carefully. Clean and degrease the parts to be glued with curd soap, coat them several times with a thin solution of glue: water- glue= 5 : 1. Take care that the workshop is well- tempered- 77F, as well as the glue- 150F, preheat the wood and the horn to about 75F. Place your clamps or rope ready for to go. When the glueing is done fix the lam to a straight and stable wooden lath for to make sure that the bow will stay aligned. Maybe you want a reflexed or recurved bow, so fix the bow to an according wooden form. This procedure is called glue- shaping.  The Japanese makers of the traditional Yumi- bows are using a rope and wedges made of bamboo for to glue- shape the multicurved yumis.

After having done my experiences in glueing bow- lams I ended up in using selfmade clamps for to match as exactly as possible the needs of a well working glueing.

selfmade clamps- bottom-, side-, top view

The clamps are made of mountain- maple slats cut to 3″ in length, about 1/2″ in thickness for the bottom piece and 1/3″ for the upper piece, width is about 1″. For to screw them down I use thread rods and fitting nuts, countersinked into the bottom piece of the clamp. It´s also a good idea to use winged screws, but for to develop heavier pressure I prefer to screw the clamps down with a ratchet wrench.

selfmade clamps in action- use a wrench of your choice or wing screws

It´s also possible to do these clamps by glueing small pieces of wood at their internal sides for to guide the lams not to slip out of place. But don´t do them to thick, otherwise you can´t produce the necessary pressure: I leave an open space of about 1″ – 11/2″ in width and about 1/3″ in thickness,  you can make clamps with more or less open space matching the different cross- sections of the lam.

another view of the clamps in action- note the glued on small pieces of wood working as a guide

Before using the selfmade clamps open them up, organize the glueing well, prepare all tools you need, take care for the right temperature of the workshop and the glue.  The advantage of these clamps is that you can develop pressure where it is needed, more or less. Don´t screw them down to heavy.  Just as far as the glue is flowing out of the glueline.

These clamps are highly effective, done by yourself you´ve to buy screws, nuts and thread rod. Choose them made of iron not made of aluminium, as I did it for the first time. Iron is much more stable.